The Basics of Prey Model Raw

Updated: Dec 16, 2021

What is Prey Model Raw The principles of prey model raw and franken prey raw come directly from nature. In the wild felines, canines and weasel like species eat small whole prey such as rabbits, mice, rats and other rodents, insects and small birds (1).

Prey Model typically represents the sect of raw feeders that feed whole unprocessed but ethically dispatched prey while franken prey uses various parts from several different proteins sources to create a meal that represents the average of the meat, organ and bone content from these animals in nature (2)



While our smaller carnivore companions would not be seen taking down a turkey let alone, a cow, with the intervention of humans, that our domestic companions depend on, we are able to provide a more balanced, varied and nutrient dense diet by using protein sources our companions wouldn’t typically eat in the wild such as beef, bison, venison, pork, ostrich, alpaca, kangaroo and much more (3, 4).


Regardless of the ingredients, the meal needs to add up to 80% muscle meat, 10% secreting organs and 10% appropriate and edible bone. Raw feeders can mix and match models for variety. Whole Prey can include:

Chicks Ducklings

Guinea Keets

Quail Mice Rats Gerbils

Hamsters

Guinea Pig Fish Rabbits Cow Fetus Pig Fetus Squirrel *This list is not an all inclusive list

Meat

The main ingredients in your companion’s meal will be made of muscle meat. Muscle meat should make up 80% of the meal or batch. Meat can come from:

1. Beef

2. Chicken

3. Cornish Game Hen

4. Fish (sardines, mackerel, salmon, trout

5. Pork

6. Lamb

7. Duck

8. Turkey

9. Rabbit

10. Mice

11. Bison

12. Venison

13. Goat

14. Quail

15. Emu

16. Elk

17. Alpaca

18. Crawdads

19. Frog

20. Octopus

21. Squirrel

22. Keet/Guinea Fowel

23. Antelope

24. Camel

25. Ground Hog

26. Goose

27. Hamster

28. Gerbil

29. Guinea Pig

30. Ostrich

31. Beaver

32. Finch

33. Peacock

34. Muskrat

35. IIama

36. Rat

37. Pheasant

38. Partridge

39. Woodcock

40. Zebra

41. Kangaroo

42. Moose

43. Caribou

44. Pigeon

This list is not all inclusive of course, but as one can see there is a lot of options in regards to protein source. Depending on where you are located, some of these proteins may be more readily available to you than others.

This portion doesn’t just include typical cuts of meat thigh meat, shoulder meat and loin meat, but also includes non secreting organs as well. Those that count as meat also include

* Heart

* Lung

* Gizzards

* Tripe

* Tongue

* Trachea

These ingredients can also come from various protein sources as listed above.

Organs

Organ meat in the PMR diet makes up 10% of the meal or batch. These organs unlike meat organs are secreting. They are included to provide essential fat-soluble vitamins and minerals some of which are higher in organ meats than in muscle meat. Liver is a wonderful example. It includes copper that is found only in small amounts in other sources but in significant amounts in liver. This is why liver MUST make up 50% of the organ requirement or 5% of the total meal or batch.

Organs can include:

* Liver

* Pancreas

* Testicles

* Thymus

* Ovaries

* Kidney

* Spleen

* Brain

* Eyes

These ingredients can also come from various protein sources as listed above.

Some organs may be easier to source than others and it should also be noted that organs from difference protein sources can look slightly different in size, shape and color as well as texture.


It is important to note several protein sources and organs that should not be fed. Raw feeders should be weary of wild game such as bear, fox, raccoon or wild boar who are among a few proteins that can harbor parasites that cannot be frozen and killed. It is also not advised to feed the intestines as this is a prime source of parasites if an animal has them. Finally, do not feed other carnivores to your cat, dog or ferret. Feeding carnivores to other carnivores is unnatural for our companions whom primarily eat herbivores in the wild. It also increases biomagnification and sharing of diseases that are more likely among more related types of animals. Bones


Bones or Raw Meaty Bones (RMB) not only make up the remaining 10% of your companion’s meal or batch, but provides essential calcium that helps to balance out the phosphorus content of meat and organs. It also helps to keep bones and teeth healthy and strong and is nature's tooth brush, helping to keep your companion’s teeth pearly white and mouth smelling clean and fresh.

There are many concerns among non-raw feeders and veterinarians when it comes to including bone in companion pet diets, but that’s where knowledge of appropriate bone use comes in. First and foremost, supervision of your companion while eating bone is important especially when they are first trying it out, however you will be surprised at how much your companions know natural what to do. The following are general rules all raw feeders need to follow to ensure the safety of their companion.

1. No Cooked Bones

Cooked bones easily splinter no matter how big or small they are. This can easily cause tearing of the esophagus, stomach or intestinal lining often leading to internal bleeding or perforation. Many times this will require an expensive surgery of some sort (5).


2. No Bones too small

Bones that are too small or that can easily be swallowed whole can pose many of the same threats as splintered bones including blockages. You want to use bones that require chewing.


3. No Bones too large or weight bearing bones

Although there are some large bones you can use for recreation under careful supervision, large bones should not be used as RMBs. If they are you run the risk of broken teeth or fractured jaws.

RMB’s for Cats, Ferrets or Small Dogs:

* Rabbit Ribs

* Chicken Ribs

* Chicken Wings

* Chicken Wing tips

* Duck feet

* Cornish Game Hen

* Rabbit

* Chicken Necks

* Small Whole Prey (quail, chicks, mice, rats etc.) *This list is not an all inclusive list

RMB’s for Medium Breed Dogs:

* Chicken Frames

* Duck Neck

* Turkey Neck

* Chicken Feet

* Lamb Ribs

* Duck Wings

* Chicken Leg Quarters

* Small Whole Prey

*This list is not an all inclusive list

RMB’s for Large or Giant Breed Dogs:

* Duck Necks

* Turkey Necks

* Duck Frames

* Chicken Leg Quarters

*This list is not an all inclusive list

This list is only a generalized list. Some companions can handle or at least are willing to try some larger bone. For example, some small dogs could try a turkey neck. These bones also can come from various species and are not limited to those listed above.


Keep in mind that each type of raw meaty bone not only within a single animal (chicken neck vs. chicken thigh) or among other species (chicken neck vs. turkey neck) contain different ratios of meat and bone. This must be factored into the diet to ensure the proper bone for a balanced diet. The meat on the bone also needs to be factored into the meat portion of the diet. For detailed information about Meat to Bone Ratios and how to factor meat and bone into your recipes check out our Blog Posts on the topics! Prey Model/Franken Prey Model also goes along the lines of nature when it comes to vitamins, minerals, supplements, fruits, vegetables and grains. In nature animals get their nutrients from their food which is rich in nutrients not only from the meat, organs and bones of the prey they consume but the nutrients from the plants their prey consumes. Just like people, variety is the spice of life (4, 6). When our companions eat a variety of meat, organs and bones from a variety of protein sources, we provide a more complete nutrient profile resulting a more complete and balanced diet. Vitamins, Minerals, other supplements and plant matter like fruits, vegetables and grains are often not needed in a properly prepared prey model raw/franken prey diet and in the cases of deficiency or needing a boost there exists many natural whole food options to get your companion back on track. For detailed information about Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Plant Matter check out our Blog Posts on the topics! Prey Model Raw/Franken Prey is essentially the most natural form of feeding our carnivore companions like they would eat in the wild. Our companions may be domesticated but their anatomy and physiology has not changed and because of that commercial dry, wet/canned and cooked or dehydrated diets can tax their bodies and cause many of the illness and disease we see in the general pet population including cancer, diabetes, obesity, dental disease, kidney disease, urinary issues, allergies and much more (7, 8, 9). By following the ideal ratios of meat, organs and bone as well as a variety of protein sources your companion can live a long happy and healthy life reaping the plethora of benefits of a raw species appropriate diet.

RESOURCES

  1. Krauze-Gryz, Dagny & Gryz, Jakub & Goszczyński, J.. (2012). Predation by domestic cats in rural areas of central Poland: An assessment based on two methods. Journal of Zoology. 288. 260-266. 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2012.00950.x.

  2. Christine M. Ruessheim, “Tissue Percentage of Some Common Prey of the Cat”, Baton Rouge, June 2002

  3. Ellen S. Dierenfeld, PhD, et. al., “Nutrient Composition of Whole Vertebrate Prey (Excluding Fish) Fed in Zoos”, Unites States Agricultural Department, May 2002, pp 9 & 10.

  4. Plantinga EA, Bosch G, Hendriks WH. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats. Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106 Suppl 1:S35-48. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511002285. PMID: 22005434.

  5. Dick, Marijke, director. Raw Diet Myth: Chicken Bones Splinter? YouTube, YouTube, 9 Jan. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ilgx4e_zJhQ.

  6. Ellen S. Dierenfeld, PhD, et. al., “Nutrient Composition of Whole Vertebrate Prey (Excluding Fish) Fed in Zoos”, Unites States Agricultural Department, May 2002, pp 9 & 10.

  7. Hodgkins, Elizabeth M. Your Cat: A Revolutionary Approach to Feline Health and Happiness. 1st ed., Thomas Dunne Books, 2007.

  8. Chew, R. M. 1965. Water metabolism of mammals. Pp. 43-178 in Physiology Mammalogy, Vol. 2, W. V. Mayer and R. G.VanGelder, eds. New York: Academic Press.

  9. MacMillan, Fiona. “ THESE RESEARCH PAPERS ALL LINK PET FOOD WITH THE ILLNESS OR DEATH OF THE CAT OR DOG TAKING PART IN THE RESEARCH .” Pet Food Causes Illness or Death - Research Papers on Animal Nutrition, Pet Food Crusade, 2008, www.mousabilities.com/nutrition/research.html.




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